BIOTREND’s 1600 second messenger research

BIOTREND offers more than 1600 second messenger research (Signal Transduction) products like Calcium Signaling reagents. Calcium functions as a second messenger and it is involved in the regulation of a multitude of cellular physiological processes. The main mechanisms for elevating intracellular Ca2+ involve: i) calcium entry through voltage- or ligand-gated calcium channels in the plasma membrane ii) ryanodine receptor- and IP3 receptor-mediated calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and iii) Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the mitochondrial membrane. The main mechanisms for removing calcium from the cytoplasm involve: i) Ca2+ ATPase in the plasma membrane and ii) Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the plasma membrane. BIOTREND second messenger research products acting on calcium channels, Calcium channel modulators and rises the main cellular Ca2+ transport pathways.

BIOTREND’s Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) detection kits are also available to study second messenger signals. Cyclic Nucleotide Regulated Kinase reagents Overview Protein kinase A (PKA, EC refers to a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on the level of cAMP in the cell. Each PKA is a holoenzyme that consists of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. Under low levels of cAMP, the holoenzyme remains intact and is catalytically inactive. When the concentration of cAMP rises (e.g. activation of adenylate cyclases by certain G protein-coupled receptors, inhibition of phosphodiesterases which degrade cAMP), cAMP binds to the two binding sites on the regulatory subunits, which then undergo a conformational change that releases the catalytic subunits. The free catalytic subunits can then catalyze the transfer of ATP terminal phosphates to protein substrates at serine or threonine residues. This phosphorylation usually results in a change in activity of the substrate. Since PKAs are present in a variety of cells and act on different substrates, PKA and cAMP regulation are involved in many different pathways. In addition, the effects of PKA phosphylation are generally transient because protein phosphatases quickly dephosphorylate PKA targets. cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein kinase G) is a dimer consisting of one catalytic and one regulatory unit, with the regulatory units blocking the active sites of the catalytic units. cGMP binds to sites on the regulatory units of PKG and activates the catalytic units, enabling them to phosphorylate their substrates.

Since 26 years BIOTREND sells worldwide ELISA kits to customers in the biotechnology industry, pharmaceutical and big pharma industry, universities and research clinics as well as Max Planck-, Helmholtz- and Fraunhofer institutes.

BIOTREND runs offices in Cologne - Germany, Wangen/Zurich – Switzerland and Destin – Florida.

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